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11. adverbs, idioms

Adverbs are words extending meaning of some corresponding verb or adjective. Adverbs are not conjugated.

  1. Adverbs regularly formed from adjectives have ending -o (or -e after consonants č, š, ž).

    example:

    mnogy
    (numerous, adj.→ mnogo (much, many, plenty of, adv.)
    dobry (good, adj.→ dobro (good, adv.)
    maly (small, adj.→ malo (a few, adv.)
    novy (new, adj.→ novo (new, adv.)
    priemy (straight, adj.→ priemo (straight, adv.)
    povratny (backward, return, adj.→ povratno (backward, return, adv.)
    levy (left, adj.→ levo (left, adv.)
    desny (right, adj.→ desno (right, adv.)
    pravy (right, correct, adj.→ pravo (right, correct, adv.)
    krivy (false, awry, adj.→ krivo (false, awry, adv.)
    sviežy (fresh, adj.→ svieže (fresh, adv.)


  2. Adjectives -sky, ... have adverb -ski.

    example:

    novosloviensky (Neoslavonic, adj.→ novoslovienski (Neoslavonic, adv.)
    englijsky (Neoslavonic, adj.→ englijski (Neoslavonic, adv.)


derived adverbs

Some adverbs are formed from fossilized proverbial structures of a noun in some case with optional preposition or pronoun. Such a structure is then written together as one word and behaves as one word. They are for example:

 vkupie  
 v kupie (L
 together  (originally: in a group)
 izjutra  iz jitra (G)
 tomorrow (originally: from the morning)
 gorie  gorie (L
 up, to the top (originally: a hill in locative)
 dolu  dolu (L)
 down, to the bottom (originally: a valley in locative)
 letom      
 letom (I)  
 in/during a summer
 zimoj  zimoj (I)
 in/during a winter
 jutrom       jutrom (I)
 in/during a morning/sunrise
 včera  večera (G)
 yesterday (originally: an evening in genitive)
 doma  doma (G)
 at home (originally: a house in genitive)
 jutras  jutra sego (G)  today morning, this morning (originally: this morning in genitive)
 polednes  poledne sego (G)    
 today noon, this noon (originally: this noon in genitive)
 večeras  večera sego (G)  today evening, this evening (originally: this evening in genitive)
 dnes  dne sego (G)  today (originally: this day in genitive)
 nočis  noči sej (G)  tonight (originally: this night in genitive)


interrogative adverbs and their answers


 current location 
 way-through location 
 requested location 
 time  modus  numeral adverb
 
 kdie? 
 where?  kudie? 
 where? 
 kamo?  where? 
 kogda   when? 
 jako?
 how? 
 koliko?   howmuch? 
 interrogative 
 sdie
 here  sdie  here  semo  here  segda  now  -  -  -  -  dmnstr. exactly
 tudie,tu  here  tudie,tu  here  tamo  there  togda  that time 
 tako  this way 
 toliko  so much
 demonstrative
 ovdie  here  ovdie  here  ovamo 
 there  ovegda  that time  ovako  this way
 -  -  dmnstr. roughly 
 ondie  here  ondie  here  onamo 
 there  onegda  that time  onako  this way
 -  -  dmnstr. distantly 
 indie  elsewhere  inudie  elsewhere  inamo  elsewhere 
 inogda  another time 
 inako  other way 
 -  -  alternatively
 inkdie  no where 
 nikudie 
 no where 
 nikamo 
 no where
 nikogda 
 never  nijako 
 no way
 nikoliko 
 no  nowise, no way
 niekdie  anywhere
 niekudie 
 anywhere  niekamo 
 anywhere  niekogda 
 sometimes  niejako 
 some way
 niekoliko 
 some  some, any
 vsekdie 
 everywhere  vsekudie 
 everywhere  vsemo  everywhere  vsegda 
 always 
 vsjako  all way
 -  -  always

  1. Note in this table that there is a lot of symmetries between pronouns, numerals and adverbs made by the same prefixes (e.g. t-, in-, ni-, nie-, vs-). For details, see chapters about pronouns and numerals again.

  2. Adverbs kamo?, semo, tamo, ... can be combined with the prefix ot- (from) in order to make adverb otkamo? (where from?), ot tamo (from there), ...

  3. Adverbs jako, nijako, niejako, ... have an alternative kako, nikako, niekako, ...


gradation

Gradation of adverbs is very similar to the gradation of adjectives as well. Also it has 4 levels and two modes: direct and descriptive. The prefix is naj- (the same as of adjectives) and suffix is -ieje (or -eje after c, s, z, č, š, ž). There are five irregular adverbs made from the same irregular adjectives in the comparative: bolše, lučše, unše, menše, gorše.

example:
  1. silno = strong
  2. silnieje = vyše silno = stronger, more strong
  3. najsilnieje = najvyše silno = strongest, the most strong
  4. najsilno = mnogo silno = very strong


idioms

Like virtually every language language, Neoslavonic has idioms as well. Were chosen with the aim of maximum similarity to a spoken language and simplicity. Please, learn these idioms:

 jest treba D N/infinitive 
 needs to, it is required, ...  (whom, what)
 hoču D verb
 I want (for D) to ...
 v redu
 in order
 i jako li že
 although (exactly: and how if that)
 drug druga
 each other (exactly: a friend of a friend)
 otnošeno  mutually (from the verb otnositi = relate to)
 na žalkost
 unfortunately (exactly: at disfavor)
 na štastije
 fortunately (exactly: at fortune)
 ače ... potom ... ali
 if ... then ... else


examples

Treba jest pisati pismo. = It is required to write a letter.

Treba jest Tebie pisati pismo. = It is required you to write a letter.

Hočeme Vam iti do Pragy. = We want you to go in Prague.

Dobro govoriš novoslovienski. = You speak Neoslavonic well.

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